Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO)

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[Literature library] Human milk oligosaccharide concentration throughout lactation
Over 200 human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) structures have been identified and this recent review article provides an overview of HMO levels from healthy women throughout lactation. 57 peer-reviewed articles were analyzed and a summary as below: Total HMO levels were: Colostrum (0-5 days): 17.7 g/L Transitional milk (6-14 days): 13.3 g/L Mature milk (15-90 days): 11.3 g/L   HMO levels differed greatly for individual HMO and varied throughout different lactational stage, e.g. 2’-FL significantly dropped from colostrum to late milk 3-FL significantly increased from colostrum to late milk   Pooled human milk consisted of a diverse HMO profile with over 200 structures, but the top 10 HMOs contributed over 70% of total HMO   Top HMOs in descending order of magnitude: 2’-FL LNDFH-I (DFLNT) LNFP-I LNFP-II LNT 3-FL 6’-SL DSLNT LNnT DFL (LDFT) FDS-LNH LNFP-III 3’-SL LST c TF-LNH   Abbreviations: 2’-FL = 2′-Fucosyllactose; LNDFH-I (DFLNT) = Lacto-N-difucohexaose I (or Difucosyllacto-N-Tetraose); LNFP-I = Lacto-N-Fucopentaose I; LNFP-I = Lacto-N-Fucopentaose II;  LNT = Lacto-N-Tetraose; 3-FL = 3-Fucosyllactose; 6’-SL = 6’-Sialyllactose; DSLNT = Disialyllacto-N-Tetraose; LNnT = Lacto-N-Neotetraose; DFL (LDFT) = Difucosyllactose (Lactodifucotetraose); FDS-LNH = Fucosyl-Disialyl-Lacto-N-Hexaose; LNFP-III = Lacto-N-Fucopentaose III; 3’-SL = 3’-Sialyllactose; LST c = Sialyllacto-N-Neotetraose c; TF-LNH = Trifucosyllacto-N-Hexaose