[Literature library] Factors influencing maternal vitamin D levels in China


A Chinese study has analyzed the influencing factors of maternal vitamin D deficiency among 3,080 pregnant women in Anhui, as well as explored the relationship between maternal vitamin D levels and common adverse pregnancy outcomes.

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Overall status of serum vitamin D levels:

  • The median serum 25-(OH) D level of all pregnant women was 33.7 (24.7, 44.7) nmol/L
  • Deficiency rate: 83.28% [25-(OH) D < 50 nmol/L]
  • Insufficiency rate: 15.36% [50 nmol/L ≤ 25-(OH) D < 75 nmol/L]
  • Sufficiency rate: 1.36% [25-(OH) D ≥ 75 nmol/L]

Protective factors for vitamin D sufficiency:

  • Gestational age between 28 and 32 weeks
  • Summer and autumn
  • High school education and above
  • Weekly time outdoors ≥ 10 hours
  • Supplement of vitamin D and trace elements during pregnancy

Influence of air temperature:

  • Maternal serum vitamin D level was highly positively correlated with air temperature

Common adverse pregnancy outcomes:

  • Maternal vitamin D level was associated with incidence of spontaneous abortion and small-for-gestational age (SGA)
    • The incidence of spontaneous abortion in ‘vitamin D deficiency group’ was the highest, with 402 cases out of 421 total cases  
    • The incidence of SGA in ‘vitamin D deficiency group’ was the highest, with 410 cases out of 423 total cases

Link to the full article:


Chen B et al. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: Influenced by multiple risk factors and increase the risks of spontaneous abortion and small-for-gestational age. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(41): e27505.

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