The influence of early-childhood dietary factors on gut microbiota development

Monday, Apr 15, 2019

Taking a deeper look into a long-term prospective birth cohort study (KOALA) conducted in the Netherlands, this article examined the influence of early events and lifestyle on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic regulation in young school-age children.

Reference:

Zhong H, Penders J, Shi Z, Ren H, Cai K, Fang C, Ding Q, Thijs C, Blaak EE, Stehouwer C, Xu X, Yang H, Wang J, Wang J, Jonkers D, Masclee A, Brix S, Li J, Arts I, Kristiansen K. Impact of early events and lifestyle on the gut microbiota and metabolic phenotypes in young school-age children. 2019;7:2. Link to the full article: https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s40168-018-0608-z
 

Other online article that you might be interested in:

Hot Science – New insights in gut microbiota establishment in healthy breast fed neonates

Background

  • Since birth, the gut microbiome is continuously modulated by factors including birth mode, type of infant feeding, as well as maternal and neonatal antibiotics use
  • Comprehensive science on the compositional and functional configuration of the gut microbiota of early school-age children is yet limited
     

Subjects

  • Study sample group
    • Healthy Dutch children aged 6-9 (n = 281)
    • Participants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study of the Netherlands
  • Control sample group
    • Healthy Dutch adults (n = 62)
    • Participants of the Maastricht Irritable Bowel Syndrome Cohort (MIBS-CO)
       

Method

  • Collected fecal samples from study sample groups
  • Analyzed sampling results against four classes of phenotypic parameters:
    • Early events;
    • Pre-school lifestyle (including diet);
    • Blood parameters (collected at age 6-9);
    • Anthropometric measurements (collected at both age 4-5 and age 6-9)
       

Key Findings

  • Early in pre-school ages, the gut microbiota of children is already demonstrating similar bacterial gene richness and diversity to those in adults
    • No significant difference in the mean diversity of species (p > 0.05)
    • No significant difference in genus profiles
  • Three distinct gut microbiota enterotypes were identified:
    • Genera Bacteroides (E1, n = 143);
    • Genera Prevotella (E2, n = 74);
    • Genera Bifidobacterium (E3, n = 64)
  • Both compositional and functional profiling of gut microbiota are stratified by enterotypes
    • E1 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • A more adult-like gut compositional profiling
      • Higher potential for biosynthesis of vitamins B12 and biotin (B7)
    • E2 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • Higher potential for biosynthesis of vitamins K, B5, and B2
      • Negatively correlated with plant-based protein intake
    • E3 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • Higher abundances of all Bifidobacterium species
      • Fewer gene counts
      • Enriched functions involved in simple sugar metabolisms (e.g. glycolysis)
      • Diminished functions for complex carbohydrate metabolisms
  • Both breastfeeding duration and plant-based food intake during preschool period play an important role in the functional and compositional potential of the gut microbiota
  • The shaping of gut microbiota enterotype are strongly influenced by the above external factors, which subsequently, impact host metabolic responses
     

Conclusion

Given the significant distinction in metabolic responses to early childhood dietary factors, stratification of gut microbiota enterotype should be accounted in future studies on the relationship between dietary lifestyle and metabolic health in children

The influence of early-childhood dietary factors on gut microbiota development

Monday, Apr 15, 2019

Taking a deeper look into a long-term prospective birth cohort study (KOALA) conducted in the Netherlands, this article examined the influence of early events and lifestyle on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic regulation in young school-age children.

Reference:

Zhong H, Penders J, Shi Z, Ren H, Cai K, Fang C, Ding Q, Thijs C, Blaak EE, Stehouwer C, Xu X, Yang H, Wang J, Wang J, Jonkers D, Masclee A, Brix S, Li J, Arts I, Kristiansen K. Impact of early events and lifestyle on the gut microbiota and metabolic phenotypes in young school-age children. 2019;7:2. Link to the full article: https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s40168-018-0608-z
 

Other online article that you might be interested in:

Hot Science – New insights in gut microbiota establishment in healthy breast fed neonates

Background

  • Since birth, the gut microbiome is continuously modulated by factors including birth mode, type of infant feeding, as well as maternal and neonatal antibiotics use
  • Comprehensive science on the compositional and functional configuration of the gut microbiota of early school-age children is yet limited
     

Subjects

  • Study sample group
    • Healthy Dutch children aged 6-9 (n = 281)
    • Participants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study of the Netherlands
  • Control sample group
    • Healthy Dutch adults (n = 62)
    • Participants of the Maastricht Irritable Bowel Syndrome Cohort (MIBS-CO)
       

Method

  • Collected fecal samples from study sample groups
  • Analyzed sampling results against four classes of phenotypic parameters:
    • Early events;
    • Pre-school lifestyle (including diet);
    • Blood parameters (collected at age 6-9);
    • Anthropometric measurements (collected at both age 4-5 and age 6-9)
       

Key Findings

  • Early in pre-school ages, the gut microbiota of children is already demonstrating similar bacterial gene richness and diversity to those in adults
    • No significant difference in the mean diversity of species (p > 0.05)
    • No significant difference in genus profiles
  • Three distinct gut microbiota enterotypes were identified:
    • Genera Bacteroides (E1, n = 143);
    • Genera Prevotella (E2, n = 74);
    • Genera Bifidobacterium (E3, n = 64)
  • Both compositional and functional profiling of gut microbiota are stratified by enterotypes
    • E1 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • A more adult-like gut compositional profiling
      • Higher potential for biosynthesis of vitamins B12 and biotin (B7)
    • E2 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • Higher potential for biosynthesis of vitamins K, B5, and B2
      • Negatively correlated with plant-based protein intake
    • E3 gut microbiota exhibited:
      • Higher abundances of all Bifidobacterium species
      • Fewer gene counts
      • Enriched functions involved in simple sugar metabolisms (e.g. glycolysis)
      • Diminished functions for complex carbohydrate metabolisms
  • Both breastfeeding duration and plant-based food intake during preschool period play an important role in the functional and compositional potential of the gut microbiota
  • The shaping of gut microbiota enterotype are strongly influenced by the above external factors, which subsequently, impact host metabolic responses
     

Conclusion

Given the significant distinction in metabolic responses to early childhood dietary factors, stratification of gut microbiota enterotype should be accounted in future studies on the relationship between dietary lifestyle and metabolic health in children


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